STEM Summer Research - Glasgow Courses

You will earn 6 research credits over 6 weeks in the summer, conducting a faculty-supervised, hands-on, directed study research project with results that will culminate in the preparation of a research paper.

The Biology projects are considered team projects, with a maximum of three students per group.

You will complete a minimum of 240 hours of research in and out of the laboratory.

Faculty mentors will work closely with you to direct your continued growth and knowledge development in the chosen research topic discipline.

  • Please review your project with your academic or study abroad advisor to ensure it will transfer back to your home school and that you are following your home school’s policies.

Choosing Your Research Project

  • Review Project titles and descriptions below.
  • List 3 (in order of preference) in your personal essay.
  • Program is highly individualized, with limited enrollment.
  • You will need to complete a brief Literature Review in consultation with your research supervisor prior to departure before the start of the program. More details here.

  • We encourage you to contact Arcadia’s Assistant Dean of STEM programs, Dr. Jessie Guinn, to discuss your particular research interests further.

Biology, Chemistry, Geography & Earth Sciences, Physics, Psychology

Course ID Title Credits Syllabus
SCOT RSLW 392S International Independent Research in STEM Fields 6 PDF

2019 Research Projects

This is an incomplete list of available projects. More projects will be added as they are available. Please contact Assistant Dean Jessie Guinn for additional information.

Chemistry
Materials for Electrocatalytic Energy Conversion and Storage
Self-organization of Titanium based multi-nuclear clusters
Development of the Meta-Smart concept using an engineered nanofabricated structure
Geoscience
Supervolcanoes: the Phlegraean Fields of central Italy
Cryovolcanoes: the volcanoes of the outer solar system
The big volcanoes of Scotland: Ben Nevis
The big volcanoes of Scotland: Glen Coe
Monogenetic volcanoes in our Solar System
Life Sciences
Mesophiles and Thermophiles in the Urban Environment
Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model Organism for Genetic Screens
Viruses and Bacteria in Freshwater: A Historical Record of Past Pollution?
Physics
Negative Refraction in Natural Hyperbolic Media
Measuring ratios of cross sections for photon/Z +jet processes at the LHC
Understanding the impact of weak lensing on gravitational-wave cosmology
Psychology
Factors affecting course-related overseas experiences: a systematic literature search
Autism and intersubject correlation of brain activity while watching dance
Using Virtual Reality Technology to Explore the Inner Perceptual World of Autism
Answering Fundamental Questions about Colour Perception using Novel Technology
 

Description of Research Projects 

 
 
Discipline: Chemistry

Materials for Electrocatalytic Energy Conversion and Storage

Dr. Alexey Ganin

Sunlight is widely distributed geographically and provides enough energy in one hour to supply the world’s energy demands for a full year. However, this form of renewable energy is intermittent; thus solar energy must be fed into the grid or is otherwise wasted. Recent efforts have therefore been focused on the conversion and storage of excess solar energy as a fuel. In the future development of solar-to-fuel application, the choice of electrode materials plays a key role as they must be both readily available and integrated with current solar cell prototypes. Our vision is to design and implement such electrodes by exploring the chemistry of layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). We aim to achieve appreciable conversion rates by tapping into the intrinsic and useful features of any layered material, namely two-dimensionality. The 2D nature of TMDCs could enable a maximum output from the entire surface of the potential catalysts and thus, to allow for a simplistic and cheap electrodes, for example, in the form of thin films. We aim to link materials design and thin film technology into projects which will give hands-on experience of a renewable energy project and working in a cross-disciplinary research environment: starting with materials discovery, followed by their comprehensive characterisation and ending with the electrochemical evaluation of prototype devices.

The project in the research group of Dr. Alexey Ganin will involve the synthesis of solid state materials and their detailed characterisation by X-Ray diffraction, microscopy and spectroscopic tools. The performance of the solids as electrodes for future solar-to-fuel devices will be evaluated by working directly with the electrochemical characterisation sub-team. There is also an opportunity to carry out collaborative work with the School of Engineering (Dr. David Moran) which will consist of comprehensive studies of electronic and transport properties and design of proof-of-the-concept devices.

More information about the Ganin group can be found here

 

DISCIPLINE: CHEMISTRY

Self-organization of Titanium based multi-nuclear clusters

Dr. Haralampos (Harry) Miras

Crystalline polyoxo-titanium clusters (PTCs) have attracted considerable attention the last years due to their potential applications in catalysis, medicine, electro-optics, and nanotechnology. In particular, the precise structural information of PTCs can help the understanding of the binding modes of sensitizers to Ti-O surfaces and potential applications in photoelectronic and photocatalytic chemistry. The aim of this project is the identification of electronic effects and intermolecular interactions that influence the self-organization of Ti-based molecular species. Characterization will be performed using a range of techniques such as UV-vis, Mass spectrometry, FT-IR and X-ray diffraction.

 

DISCIPLINE: CHEMISTRY

Development of the Meta-Smart concept using an engineered nanofabricated structure

Prof. Malcolm Kadodwala

We live in a world in which individuals have unprecedented access to data on their environment, health and wellbeing. This ranges from information provided by fitness bands, to the energy smart meters that are found in every home. However, our current capabilities pale when compared to the sensory abilities found in Nature. For, instance no technology has been developed that can rival the ability of a spaniel for sniffing out contraband. To replicate Nature's capabilities to detect a vast array of stimuli with ultra-sensitivity is still in the realms of science fiction. In natural sensory systems, typically a change in molecular structure (in a receptor molecule) induced by a stimulus, is detected and propagated by a complex biological architecture. While chemists can mimic the function of receptor molecules, it is the functionality of complex biological component to convert and propagate this structural change into a usable signal that is a challenge to replicate. The project will be part of a wider programme to develop a novel concept Meta-Smart, where the initial molecular sensing event is retained, but the functionality of the biological architecture is replicated by an engineered nanofabricated structure (metamaterial). In effect the metamaterial amplifies the chemical signal, converting it into a readily detectable response. Taking inspiration from Nature, the property of chirality will be utilised to effectively unify biomacromolecular and metamaterial properties. To demonstrate the transformative potential of the Meta-Smart concept we will build bio-inspired chemo- and photosensing devices.

 
 
 
DISCIPLINE: Geoscience

Supervolcanoes: the Phlegraean Fields of central Italy

Dr. Cristina Persano

Research field of the research project: Volcanic hazards

One of the ‘fumarole’ at the Phlegraen Fields, near Naples (courtesy of A. Cannarozzo)Background: The Phlegraen Fields (Campi Flegrei in Italian) are a series of volcanoes, some now under the sea, in central Italy, north-west of Naples. Although at the moment, none of the volcanoes are particularly active, they are not dead and the most recent geological monitoring shows that the magma chamber underneath is being filled by gasses or molten rocks. Their eruption could be potentially highly destructive, because these volcanoes are very explosive (their eruptions are thought to be comparable to that created by the Tambora in 1815, one of the deadliest volcanoes on Earth); their threat is very important because the Phlegraen Fields  are situated in an area where more than 3 million people live.

The aim of this project is to produce scientific information about the volcanic hazards of the Phlegraen Fields to inform the public about this risk. In detail, you will produce maps that identify the Phlegraen Fields, the different volcanic products left by eruptions occurred in the past, the present volcanic activity and quantify the evidence of magma chamber re-charging. The maps will contain information about the geology/geomorphology of the area that the user can easily access.

Scientific hypothesis being tested: The volcanic activity at the Phlegraen Fields has restarted.

Background that the student needs to have: A basic knowledge of volcanology is required (equivalent to a second year student majoring in geology and/or Earth Science); willing to work at the computer. Knowledge of ArcGIS and Inkscape is desirable, but not required.

Analytical techniques to be employed: Google earth and ArcGIS to produce the maps; windows excel to collect and analyse the geological and geomorphological data.
 

 
DISCIPLINE: GEOSCIENCE

Cryovolcanoes: the volcanoes of the outer solar system

Dr. Cristina Persano and Prof. Martin Lee

Research field of the research project: Planetary geology

3D visualization of Ahuna Mons, based on Dawn data. Credit: Dawn Science Team and NASA/JPL-Caltech/GSFCBackground: Volcanoes on Earth can be defined as geological structures that bring molten rocks to the surface. This definition is also valid for planetary bodies near our Sun; for example Venus, Mars and the Moon. However, some of the colder planets and satellites of the outer solar system contain substances in ice or liquid form that would be gas on Earth. For example, the eruption of volatiles, possibly water or methane and ammonia, have been observed. The mechanism/s responsible for raising the temperature in some parts of these planetary bodies to produce these cryovolcanoes remain unknown, although some researchers have hypothesized that tidal forces may be the answer.

The aim of this project is to collect information about the cryovolcanoes of the solar system, which have been observed by different NASA missions (e.g. on Ceres, Pluto, Titan, etc), and produce a conceptual model for their formation.

Scientific hypothesis being tested: Cryovolcanism is driven by tidal heating

Background that the student needs to have: A basic knowledge of physics is required (you need to be able to understand the effect of temperature and pressure on the state of matter).

Analytical techniques to be employed: You will be working with images from NASA; you will be using excel spreadsheet to organize the information and to test the hypothesis that tidal forces may be responsible for the volcanic activity on these planetary bodies.

 

 
DISCIPLINE: GEOSCIENCE

The big volcanoes of Scotland: Ben Nevis

Dr. Cristina Persano and Awara Amin (PhD Student)

Research field of the research project: volcanology, geochronology

Ben Nevis in winter (marvellousmaps.com)Background: There are no active volcanoes in Scotland, but there are many volcanic edifices that were active in the distant geological past. Ben Nevis, the highest mountain in Scotland and in the UK is one of these ancient volcanoes. The volcano was active about 350 million years ago, when what we now call the ‘Scottish Highlands’ were part of big mountain belts, the Caledonians, probably similar for height of the peaks and extension to the present Andes.

Despite their geological and geographical importance, the rocks that form Ben Nevis have not been properly dated, yet; crucially we not know the temporal and genetic relationship between the granites that are exposed at lower elevation and volcanic rocks that form the peak. The aim of this project is to date them; you will be using a technique called U/Pb (Uranium/Lead) chronology in a mineral called zircon.

Scientific hypothesis being tested: Are the granites and the volcanic rocks at the top of Ben Nevis derived from the same magma (i.e. do they have the same age?).

Background that the student needs to have: A basic knowledge chemistry (you will be using the principle of radioactive decay) and igneous geology is required (you need to know the difference between granites and andesite, for example).

Analytical techniques to be employed: mineral separation techniques; geochemistry; mass-spectrometry.

 
DISCIPLINE: GEOSCIENCE

THE BIG VOLCANOES OF SCOTLAND: Glen Coe

Dr. Cristina Persano and Awara Amin (PhD Student)

Research field of the research project: volcanology, geochronology

Glen Coe in winter (http://www.drookitagain.co.uk/coppermine/displayimage-4663.html)Background: There are no active volcanoes in Scotland, but there are many volcanic edifices that were active in the distant geological past. Glen Coe and the Three Sisters peaks represent the remnant of a big caldera that exploded about 400 million years ago. At the time, what we now call the ‘Scottish Highlands’ were part of big mountain belts, the Caledonians, probably similar for height of the peaks and extension to the present Andes and characterised, like the Andes, by explosive volcanoes.

Despite their geological and geographical importance, the volcanic rocks that are exposed at Glen Coe have not been properly dated, yet; crucially we not know when the caldera formed and the volcanic activity stopped. The aim of this project is to date the volcanic rocks at the top of the sequence; you will be using a technique called U/Pb (Uranium/Lead) chronology in a mineral called zircon.

Scientific hypothesis being tested: When did the Glen Coe caldera form?

Background that the student needs to have: A basic knowledge chemistry (you will be using the principle of radioactive decay) and igneous geology is required (you need to know the difference between granites and andesite, for example).

Analytical techniques to be employed: mineral separation techniques; geochemistry; mass-spectrometry.

 

 
DISCIPLINE: GEOSCIENCE

Monogenetic volcanoes in our Solar System

Dr. David Brown, Dr. Cristina Persano

Research field of the research project: Volcanic hazards

Background: Monogenetic volcanic fields are concentrations of numerous small volcanoes, each of which erupts only once. They typically contain simple cinder cones and scoria cones, or more complex structures called tuff rings and maar-diatremes. There are several examples of modern/active volcanic fields on Earth, for example the Auckland Volcanic Field in New Zealand. This volcanic field represents a hazard to the local population and the understanding of the distribution and timing of such volcanoes and their eruptions is important in risk assessments. Studying these volcanic fields relies on gathering data from ancient examples but these can often be obscured by poor exposure or later geological events. However, elsewhere in the Solar System these fields may be better preserved and thus allow detailed quantitative measurements.

The aim of this project is to use new satellite imagery to determine the scale and distribution of monogenetic volcanic fields on, for example, Mars, and to compare this with examples on Earth. You will measure the spacing of cones, their relationship with geological features such as faults, and also the geomorphology/dimensions of individual cones. You will examine how the fields develop, and consider their similarity to Earth examples, or whether, for example, gravitiational effects, considerably influence field development.

You will choose this project if you are interested in geology, volcanology and hazards, and science communication.

Scientific hypothesis being tested: Well preserved monogenetic volcanic fields in the Solar System may be used as analogues for volcanic field development on Earth.

Background that the student needs to have: A basic knowledge of volcanology is required (equivalent to a second year student majoring in geology and/or Earth Science); willing to work at the computer. Knowledge of ArcGIS and Inkscape is desirable, but not required.

Analytical techniques to be employed: Google Earth and ArcGIS to produce maps; Excel to collect and analyse the geological and geomorphological data.

 

DISCIPLINE: Life Sciences

Mesophiles and Thermophiles in the Urban Environment

Faculty from the School of Life Sciences

Microbes are able to colonize natural environments in which extremes of temperature, pH or osmolarity are found. Members of the Archaea are particularly notes for these attributes. Modern domestic and urban environments can present equally challenging conditions yet the ability of microbes to exist in these niches and the substrates that they utilize for growth are much less well understood.

The project will use conventional microbiological techniques to sample from a range of urban environments that present thermal challenge and seek out mesophilic and thermophilic organisms able to survive and grow in these conditions. The properties of these bacteria will be analyzed and identification will be attempted by sequencing of genes that encode ribosomal RNA. Students on the project will develop skills in microbiology and molecular biology and the project will offer substantial opportunity for independent investigation.

Desirable background: Some basic knowledge of microbiology and aseptic technique would be useful but training can be provided.

 

DISCIPLINE: LIFE SCIENCES

Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model Organism for Genetic Screens

Faculty from the School of Life Sciences

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has achieved great utility as a model organism for the biology of multicellular organisms. Despite its simplicity – typically, the animal comprises just over 1000 cells – it has a sophisticated nervous system and all the neuronal pathways have been mapped. Today, C. elegans is used to study a much larger variety of biological processes including apoptosis, cell signalling, cell cycle, cell polarity, gene regulation, metabolism, ageing and sex determination. Many key discoveries, both in basic biology and medically relevant areas, were first made in the worm

As an experimental system, Caenorhabditis elegans, offers a unique opportunity to interrogate in vivo the genetic and molecular functions of human disease-related genes. For example, C. elegans has provided crucial insights into fundamental biological processes such as cell death and cell fate determinations, as well as pathological processes such as neurodegeneration and microbial susceptibility. The C. elegans model has several distinct advantages including a completely sequenced genome that shares extensive homology with that of mammals, ease of cultivation and storage, a relatively short lifespan and techniques for generating null and transgenic animals.
 
The aim of this project will be to establish an experimental system with C. elegans in which these topics can be explored using a forward genetic approach. Using ethylmathanesulforate (EMS), a mutagen that induces direct mutations in DNA, such as missense and nonsense mutations you will screen populations of C. elegans looking for any phenotypic changes that may be biologically interesting and attempt to further characterize the mutants. In addition C. elegans is an excellent model organism for the study of addiction to compounds such as alcohol and caffeine, areas that can also be investigated during the project. This is a very exciting project as the outcome is unknown and it may lead to the identification of a new mutant phenotype.
 
Students on the project will develop skills in molecular biology and the project will offer substantial opportunity for independent investigation.

Desirable background: Some basic knowledge of molecular biology or biochemistry would be useful but training can be provided.

 

DISCIPLINE: LIFE SCIENCES

Viruses and Bacteria in Freshwater: A Historical Record of Past Pollution?

Faculty from the School of Life Sciences

Many species of bacteria present in natural environments act as hosts for viruses (“bacteriophage”) that enter, replicate and destroy the microbial host. Vast numbers of these viruses are found in aquatic and marine environments – typically each milliliter of seawater contains 10 million of these agents – and they play important roles in regulating bacterial populations, driving bacterial evolution and in consequence, impacting upon multiple ecosystems.

Although viral infectivity can decline with time depending upon the virus, ambient temperature, pH and other parameters, they remain an important indicator of water quality. But can they persist in the absence of the bacteria in which they grow? Can they provide a historical record of past pollution?

The aim of this project will be to characterize the bacteria of faecal origin in a local watercourse, to establish which indicator organisms are present and which are absent, and then to attempt detection of bacteriophage for both groups of microbes. Students on the project will develop skills in environmental monitoring, microbiology and molecular biology.

Desirable background: Some basic knowledge of ecology and microbiology would be useful but training can be provided.

 

Discipline: Physics (materials and condensed matter)

Negative Refraction in Natural Hyperbolic Media

Dr. Rair Macedo

The possibility of achieving negative refraction in artificial materials has recently enabled a series of novel optical effects, the most eye-catching of which are the possibilities to create Harry Potter-style invisibility cloaks and perfect lenses. In these systems, however, the optical properties can only be changed by varying structural parameters which, in most cases, are technically difficult and induce high loss of transmitted light. This project will investigate an intriguing alternative approach that circumvents these problems. It uses an alternative class of natural materials that can also achieve high-performance negative refraction: these are known as hyperbolic media.

The project aims to investigate the properties of natural hyperbolic media. It will be particularly focused on the investigation of dielectric responses to electromagnetic fields and how those can be used to induce novel optical effects. The project will involve computer simulations and some experimental lab-work. It would suit students for an aptitude for computer programming.

Key References:
[1] D. R. Smith and D. Schurig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077405 ( 2003).
[2] D. R. Smith, P. Kolinko, and D. Schurig, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1032-1043 (2004)
[3] R. Macêdo, T. Dumelow, and R. L. Stamps. ACS Photonics, 3(9):1670–1677, (2016).

 

DISCIPLINE: PHYSICS (particle)

Measuring ratios of cross sections for photon/Z +jet processes at the LHC

Dr. Andy Buckley

The theory of the strong nuclear force, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), is the most complex of the three fundamental forces, and the hardest in which to make predictive calculations. QCD is the dominant interaction in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and our understanding of it is hence a key limitation on studies of the Higgs boson and searches for new particles.
Due to the confinement property of QCD, the quark and gluon particles that interact with it are combined into colourless combinations called hadrons.

The hadrons appear as collimated flows known as jets, with the total momenta and internal structure of jets determined by QCD effects.

The "cleanest" way to study jet properties is when they are produced in association with a Z boson or a photon. In this project, we will investigate ratios of cross sections for photon+jet and Z+jet processes with data from the ATLAS collaboration at the LHC, enabling a precise comparison between data and theoretical predictions and reducing experimental uncertainties on measurements of new physics.

 

DISCIPLINE: PHYSICS & Astronomy

Understanding the impact of weak lensing on gravitational-wave cosmology

Prof. Martin Hendry

The discovery of gravitational waves in 2015 has opened an entirely new window on the universe and kick-started an exciting new method for measuring the expansion rate of the universe – using gravitational-wave sources as cosmological distance indicators, so-called “standard sirens”. The future prospects are very promising for using standard sirens observed with the proposed LISA spaceborne gravitational-wave observatory to constrain cosmological models. However, these sirens – which are typically expected to be the mergers of supermassive black holes in distant galaxies – will be expected to be so distant that the gravitational-wave signals will have a high probability of undergoing “weak gravitational lensing” due to intervening large-scale structure. A failure to take this lensing into account will potentially lead to biased estimates of the cosmological parameters fitted by LISA observations.

The aim of this project will be to explore different strategies for correcting for weak lensing and investigate how well such corrections will allow the parameters of cosmological models to be constrained by future gravitational-wave observations.

 

DISCIPLINE: Psychology

Factors affecting course-related overseas experiences: a systematic literature search

Dr. Lorna Morrow, Dr. Maria Gardani, and Dr. Satu Baylan

While having an overseas course-related experience is a great opportunity for many students, the experience can also deliver challenges, both academic and personal in nature. The aim of this project is to design and prepare a systematic review of this topic, in particular seeking to identify the factors that enhance the overseas experience and those that make it more difficult. Further, the intention is to be able to propose interventions that can be applied/recommended to offset the challenges and therefore improve the overseas experience further, all the time utilising knowledge from the psychology literature about wellbeing. As well as developing an in-depth knowledge of the topic and how psychology can be applied to solve the practical task of enriching the student experience, research interns will be trained in the methods of literature searching for a systematic review and a meta-analysis, which is an excellent transferable skill.
Students should have good knowledge of literature search techniques and enthusiasm to learn new research skills.

 

DISCIPLINE: PSYCHOLOGY

Autism and intersubject correlation of brain activity while watching dance

Prof. Frank Pollick

This project involves analysing a set of brain data acquired while typical individuals and those on the autism spectrum were scanned using fMRI while viewing short videos of ballet dance. The hypotheses to be explored involve examining whether differences in either motion or social brain areas exist in autism. Analysis will be conducted with the Intersubject Correlation Toolbox run under Matlab. Intersubject Correlation reveals regions of the brain where brain activity is correlated between a group of observers and provides a model-free means to examine how perception drives brain activity. It is expected that the student will learn essential skills in the analysis of fMRI data and the use of Matlab for data analysis.

 

DISCIPLINE: PSYCHOLOGY

Using Virtual Reality Technology to Explore the Inner Perceptual World of Autism

Dr. David Simmons

Autism, a common neuro-developmental condition, affects at least 1% of the UK population. Autism is partly characterized by sensory difficulties, such as over- or under-responsiveness to certain types of lighting and everyday noises, and an almost obsessive desire for particular types of sensory stimulation, known as “sensory seeking” behaviour. To date, most research on sensory aspects of autism has used parent/caregiver-reports, combined with a smaller amount of self-report data from those able to speak for themselves and further data from lab-based experiments. So far, however, despite these data providing us with some fascinating insights, we have yet to fully appreciate precisely what is going on in the “inner perceptual world” of autism, although it is clear that it is qualitatively different from what typical individuals experience. In this project we propose the use of Virtual Reality (VR) technology to explore this inner perceptual world. VR technology has become much less bulky and much more affordable in recent years, and the availability of software has burgeoned. In our experiments we aim to explore perceptual worlds by asking people to illustrate their experiences using the powerful and compelling creative tools now available for use in VR environments. We will use a combination of quantitative analysis of participants’ responses to questionnaires with qualitative analysis of both their verbal descriptions (if available) and of their audio-visual creations to further understand the nature of their inner perceptual worlds. Furthermore, we will use our experience in objective behavioural experimentation to embed game-like tasks into the created environments to explore our participants’ perceptual limits more objectively. This collaborative project will further our understanding of the inner perceptual world of autism and result in the development of a suite of versatile VR software tools together with new techniques of creative expression for those with communication difficulties.

Starting refs: Robertson A.E. & Simmons, D.R. (2015). The sensory experiences of adults with autism spectrum disorder: A qualitative analysis Perception, 44, 569-586.

https://www.scottishautism.org/about-autism/research-and-training/centre-practice-innovation/share-magazine/share-magazine-winter-2017

 

DISCIPLINE: PSYCHOLOGY

Answering Fundamental Questions about Colour Perception using Novel Technology

Dr. David Simmons

How we perceive colours has fascinated scientists since the seminal work of Isaac Newton, but some fundamental questions remain. Is it possible to see a reddish green or a bluish yellow? How does the wavelength content of light affect its colour appearance? Are we able to distinguish the polarization angle of light? How do all of these factors affect our emotional and aesthetic reactions to different colours. These issues will be addressed by a new collaborative partnership between physicists with the knowhow to generate novel visual stimuli, philosophers interested in perceptual experiences and psychologists with expertise in the quantitative assessment of human vision.

Starting ref: Brown, D. and Macpherson, F. (2018) An introduction to the philosophy of colour. In: Brown, D. and Macpherson, F. (eds.)The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Colour. Series: Routledge handbooks in philosophy. Routledge. ISBN 9780415743037 (In Press)

Simmons, D. (2011) Colour and emotion. In: Biggam, C.P. (ed.) New Directions in Colour Studies. John Benjamins Publishing Company: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 395-413. ISBN 9789027211880 

 


Grade Scale for University of Glasgow - AACRAO EDGE

Grade Range Description Suggested U.S. Equivalent
A1-A5 First Class A
B1-B3 Second Class Upper B+
C1-C3 Second Class Lower B
D1-D3 Third Class/Pass C
E1 and below Fail F
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